Abstract:Clustering is an essential unsupervised method in pattern recognition of data mining domains. The main challenge of cluster is how to evaluate the result based on the compactness and correctness of the clustering data points. There are two methods are used for evaluating the cluster validity that are internal validity index and external validity index. Internal indices determine the quality of a clustering solution using the underlying data. External indices compare the clustering results with respect to a pre-specified structure of the data points. Out of two methods of cluster validity, this research concentrates only the internal cluster evaluation indexes with different multivariate data sets. In this paper, the validity of the cluster evaluation can only be done after the detection of outliers in the multivariate data sets. The PIMA Indian datasets are taken from the UCI machine learning repository. In this paper, four internal cluster validity indexes (CVI) that are Calinski-Harabasz index (CH), Davies-Bouldin index (DB), Silhouette index, Dunn index , R-Squared index are used to evaluate results.
Abstract:Based on the cognitive dissonance theory, the empirical results on Vietnamese consumers in purchasing green vegetables indicate that greenwash is positively associated with green perceived risk while negatively related to both green perceived quality and green purchase intentions. Moreover, as consumers have a higher degree of information and knowledge about green product, the positive nexus between greenwash and green perceived risk will be weakened meanwhile the negative relationship between greenwash and green perceived quality will be strengthened. A noteworthy point is that green perceived risk and green perceived quality partially mediate the impacts of greenwash on green purchase intentions. The results offer new insights on how to make green marketing strategies to enhance green purchase intentions and avoid the potential consequences of greenwashing.
Abstract:Twenty-four male lambs (Rambouillet 23.5 kg ï¿½ 3.17 kg initial BW) were fed a basal diet with treatments which consisted of a control and oral doses of ruminally-protected choline (4 g/d RPC) and plant-based choline (4 g/d Biocholine) in a completely randomized design with initial weight as a covariate. The experiment was conducted for 42 days during which live weight, dry matter intake, carcass characteristics, blood metabolites and basic hemograms were measured. The daily gain in lambs was similar between treatments. Intake was higher in lambs given Biocholine (1.32 kg/d). The L value and mineral content in the meat were improved with both sources of choline. Blood triglycerides increased by RPC compared with the other treatments, and cholesterol was reduced by Biocholine. Alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity decreased by effect of choline. Hematological parameters were affected by choline supplementation regardless of the source; erythrocyte, monocytes and lymphocytes count decreased with both sources of choline in growing lambs.
Abstract:The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of copra meal on in vitro ruminal kinetic and greenhouse gases production and in vivo lamb performance. Twenty-eight male Rambouillet sheep (initial body weight 24.5± 3.9 kg) were randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: 0, 50, 100 and 150 g of copra meal per kg of diet (dry matter basis). Final weight, weight gain and feed intake were not affected (P > 0.05) by copra meal addition. Gas production volume decreased and gas production rate increased, in a linear trend (P<0.05) as copra meal was added to diet while methane and carbon dioxide production showed an opposite quadratic trend (P<0.05) with a high and low value at 100 g/kg DM copra meal, respectively. Copra meal addition in diet decreases volume gas production and is a strategy to decline methane and carbon dioxide production in sheep feeding, without affecting animal performance.
Abstract:Thalassemias, group of hereditary blood disorders with less synthesis of one or both globin chain of hemoglobin. Beta thalassemia major is linked with no formation of β-globin chain of hemoglobin and prevalent in the whole world, more affecting developing countries. The current research work was designed to investigate variations in hematological parameters due to iron overload in β-thalassemia patients. Hundred β-thalassemic male and female patients (Fifty each) were considered for this study. Blank blood sample was drawn from each patient. The t- and p-value of studied hematological parameters: red blood cells (0.781, p<0.436), platelet count (8.65, p<0.001), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) 1.27, p<0.204, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) 0.00, p<1, neutrophils (5.97, p<0.001), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) 1.44, p<0.150, hemoglobin (Hb) 15.76, p<0.001, monocytes (3.92, p<0.002), lymphocytes (11.46, p<0.001), Hematocrit (Hct) 13.49, p<0.001, total leukocyte count (TLC) 2.14, p<0.034, eiosinophils (19.95, p<0.001) red blood cell distribution width (RDW) 17.43p<0.001 and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) 12.93, p<0.001. The level of hemoglobin, Hct, RDW, lymphocytes, neutrophils, platelets, eiosinoplis, monocytes, ESR in β-thalassemic male were compared with β-thalassemic female and statistically highly significant (p<0.001) results were obtained. While non significant results were obtained when t-test was applied on RBCs, TLC, MCV, MCHC and MCH values of beta thalassemic males and females. Results of hematological parameters were significantly altered from standard values.
Abstract:In an iris recognition system, one of the main problems is the use of images with low quality, which affects the performance and effectiveness of the system. Errors in the identification process of these systems as the false acceptance and false rejection are the result of images without adequate quality. Progress in this area of research have increased, mainly supported by standards such as the ISO and NIST, which recommend the evaluation of some characteristics of iris images with the objective to assign a quality value, however, these standards are deficient by failing to establish clear criteria for assessing the quality of the images, so in this paper we propose an algorithm based on ISO / IEC 19794-6 which evaluates each requirement that the standard recommends using specifics methods, achieving classify iris images to use only those that have appropriate levels of quality, making to the iris recognition systems more efficient.
Abstract:This paper presents design and implementation of a boost converter with passive soft-switching feature to improve efficiency is presented. At first, operational principle of a Boost converter is introduced and then, a variety of soft-switching-cell topologies are discussed. In the passive soft-switching cells, an appropriate one is adopted to reduce switching loss of the DC-DC converter. For verification, a 1200 W boost converter with the soft-switching cell is studied and implemented. In addition, considerations in layout, parallel connection of MOSFETs, and resonant-component selection are also presented in detail. From hardware measurements, the boost converter can achieve high efficiency up to 95%, which also demonstrates that the soft-switching cell reduces switching loss significantly.
Abstract:Purpose Geographical variation in lupus nephritis epidemiology may indicate important environmental factors contributions to the etiology of lupus nephritis. This paper first describes the epidemiology of biopsy-proven lupus nephritis in China by performing a systematic literature review and the possible social-environmental influential factors. Methods The keywords “lupus nephritis”, “renal biopsy” and “systemic lupus erythematous” were searched in the three largest Chinese electronic databases and Medline/PubMed. The data of the patients with biopsy-proven lupus nephritis were extracted. The possible environmental influential factors including the population density, ethnic group populations, the ratio of females to males, the average sunshine per year, annual average temperature and annual relative humidity, in different regions of China were analyzed. Results Forty-one study centers with 34574 renal disease patients, and 3699 lupus nephritis patients met the inclusion criteria. Lupus nephritis accounts for 2.37% to 25% of all renal disease and 27.2% to 80.65% of renal disease associated with secondary glomerular diseases. The male-to-female ratio is approximately 1:5 in lupus nephritis patients. The included period is predominantly from 1995 to 2010. The proportion ratio of biopsy-proven lupus nephritis in all renal disease or in secondary glomerular disease significantly increased with decreasing latitude from the north to the south part of China. The population is predominantly Han Chinese. The annual average temperature and annual relative humidity or the interaction with other environmental factors maybe influential factors on the epidemiology of biopsy-proven lupus nephritis in China. Conclusions The epidemiology of biopsy-proven lupus nephritis in China is associated with geographical location.
Abstract:Lack of energy sources, increase of energy demand and costs, competitive conditions in the market and environmental considerations require the efficient usage of energy.\nIn this study, In this study, a continuous rapid heating type, roller hearth type, top and bottom fired and bloom charging industrial furnace charging/discharging door was replaced with an air shutter system. Therefore, furnace pressure shift was controlled, service life increased, gas leakages from openness were prevented, and efficiency of the furnace was increased. In this scope, measurements had been taken, measured data were evaluated and according to the evaluations, the mass and energy balance was established. Moreover, possible energy efficiency enhancement rate by the appliance of air shutter system was determined; payback period, size of investment and saving potential were estimated and current reheating furnace efficiency was determined as 61.83%. By the application of the air shutter system to the furnace, possible saving energy cost is $3900, payback period is about 7.5 months, and system efficiency was evaluated as 61.9%. Possible charging and/or discharging door failures due to the high temperature and corrosive effect of furnace gas was thwarted and as a result, possible occupational accident risks were avoided and a safe working environment was provided.
Abstract:Th1/Th2 imbalance plays a crucial role in the development of rheumatoid arthritis. It is well known that basophils can affect Th1/Th2 balance by enhancing Th2 response and impairing Th1 response then be involved in the development of many diseases. But little is known the role of basophils in rheumatoid arthritis. Decreased circulating basophils and Th1 response dominated in adult rheumatoid arthritis patients have been reported, while children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis have been found mainly increased circulating basophils and Th2 response dominated. Also, circulating basophils in both of them are activated and associated with disease activity. In addition, longitudinal study found Th2 response dominated in the early stage of rheumatoid arthritis, while Th1 response dominated in long-term chronic rheumatoid arthritis. These finding suggested that basophils maybe involved in the development of rheumatoid arthritis by affect Th1/Th2 balance, but the role of basophils in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis maybe differences from adult rheumatoid arthritis, especially in different stages of the disease.