Assembly lines are special flow-line production systems which are of great importance in the industrial mass production. Since total working time of a product in most industrial factories dealing with heating products is important because of its costs, this paper introduces the effect of task deterioration in to the total working time of a product in assembly line. Task deterioration means that a task processed later consumes more time than the same task when it is processed earlier. The aim is to find an optimal schedule of tasks in the workstations so as to minimize total working time of a product for a given number of stations and given upper bound for the cycle time. For this aim a mathematical model is proposed. According to complexity of the considered problem a genetic algorithm is developed to deal with the problem in lager scales. At the end several well-known examples are solved and the results proved that the deterioration will affect both cycle time and working time, simultaneously in a straight assembly line.
Head injuries are one of the main causes of death or permanent invalidity in everyday life. The\nmain purpose of the present work is to build and validate a numerical model of human head in\norder to evaluate pressure and stress distributions in bones and brain tissues due to impact.\nFurthermore, the Head Injury Criterion (HIC) and the recently proposed Head Impact Power\n(HIP) criterion were evaluated with respect to the relative motion between the skull and the\nbrain. It was found that the influence of impact direction had a substantial effect on the intracranial response. Geometrical characteristics for the finite element model have been\nextracted from CT and MRI scanner images, while material mechanical characteristics have been\ntaken from literature. The analysis is performed using the program Ansys 3D to evaluate the risk\nof head injury in impact. The model is validated by comparing the numerical results and the\nexperimental results obtained by Nahum in 1977.
Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the main causes of death or permanent\ninvalidity which can occur unexpectedly in both military and civilian populations.\nThe purpose of this effort is to conduct a combined Eulerian-Lagrangian non-linear dynamics\ncomputational analysis of the interaction between a single planar blast wave and a human head in\norder to assess the extent of intra-cranial shock wave generation and its potential for causing\ntraumatic brain injury. In this paper, an LS-DYNA three dimensional transient modal dynamic\nfinite element analysis was performed of a simplified brain model surrounded by cerebral spinal\nfluid and skull. Viscoelastic material parameters of the brain tissue were obtained from open\nliterature. The localized response parameters predicted by the head model will be analyzed and\ncompared between various loading conditions.
Completed in 2011, Transalpina Road crosses the Parâng Mountains from north to south, linking two major tourism areas: Northern Oltenia and Mărginimea Sibiului. Through the specific tourism resources of the mountain area, which have become accesible to tourists, but also through other tourism resorces, Transalpina is a self-standing tourism product, on its way to become a self-standing tourism destination.The present study aims to highlighting the particularities of Transalpina Road as a tourism attraction / tourism product / tourism destination, as well as its role in the local tourism entrepreneurship initiatives; thus, through the assessment of the potential market (respectively, opinions and preferences), a marketing research – survey type has been conducted.
The impact of modern technology on reducing energy consumption in modern houses and their design has been the main concern of most researchers and architects during the last two decades. What first catches attention, within the area of Nanotechnology, is its compatibility with the environment and energy saving enhancements which is one of the best achievements of human being. That how long Human being will continue destructing environment or wasting fossil energies is a subject that will be investigated along with the progresses made in technology and its achievements in utilizing new materials and energy. In recent years, comprehensive studies have been undertaken in the area of green, renewable energy. In the meanwhile, nanomaterial technology occupies an important place and has had remarkable achievements. Taking advantage of new technology, its combination with elements of traditional and indigenous forms, either formal or functional, and its use in solving the climate conditions, are some of the basic uses of new technology in contemporary Iranian architecture. However, application of new technology in preserving certain cultural and social values of a specific area and principles of traditional architecture, along with the rules, conditions and new technology are considered as an ideal patterns to be used in contemporary spaces. Using new technologies and new materials in making arrangements and decorations, colors and indigenous or traditional materials symbolically, whether harmonious or in contrast with modern technology, is also one of the best models that, by using modern methods and new materials, can respond to the increasing needs of the contemporary world. This paper investigates the use of nanotechnology materials in construction in order to save energy.
Polynomial spline in off step points is used to solve twelfth-order linear boundary value problems . Boundary formulas are developed. We compare our results with the results produced by Non-polynomial spline method. However, it is observed that our approach produce better numerical solutions in the sense that max |e| is a minimum.
Alamut is a region in Iran including western and eastern parts in the western edge of the Alborz (Elburz) massif, between the dry and barren plain of Qazvin in the south and the densely forested slopes of the Mazandaran province in the north. Starting from Qazvin toward Alamut, passing through the first range of hills, curvatures, forms, scars, wrinkles are significant themes in nature\'s composition of this area. Two big citadels of Ismailists, Lambsar and Alamut castles are in this area. Alamut valley is located at west Alborz, the average height of the valley\'s chains is approximately 3600m and it is surrounded by Shah Alborz (Taleghan mountains) sub-range (4125m) from south, The Siyalan(4178m) and the main west Alborz ridgeline from north, Takht-e-Soleiman sub-range (4850m) from east and Qazvin planes and villages from west. Alamut is a tourist city in Qazvin province. Alamut was not so successful in attracting tourists during previous years. There is a question why this situation has happened to the tourist subject in Alamut. First by strategic approaching we used SWOT matrix to recognize strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the region and then we processed tourism development strategies. Regarding regional programming strategies to develop tourism according to experts’ views and topsis approach priority steps were taken and as a result, five strategies were chosen including higher priority in practical solution .five practical solutions were ranked depending on experts views. These five solutions are categorized by this priority such as, investment supporting, recognizing potential market, service development and improvement, infrastructural development, pedagogical programs development